With so many discoveries about Earth’s climate making the news daily, now is a good time to remind ourselves of the basic facts about climate change and its scientific context.
Try to answer the questions below on your own. The answers, with sources, will appear in next week’s Triple-win column.
1. How do scientists define “climate”? a. the average air temperature of each latitude belt around Earth b. the relative precipitation versus drought on a large region, such as a continent c. the average weather for a large region of Earth and time period, usually three decades d. the weather in fall, winter, spring, and summer over a year
2. How much has the Earth's surface temperature risen since the 1880s? a. one-half or .5-degree Fahrenheit b. 1.1-degree Fahrenheit c. about 2 degrees Fahrenheit c. about 3 degrees Fahrenheit
3. What has caused most of the global warming over the past five decades? a. cars b. large-scale ranching c. volcanoes and hurricanes d. industrial production
4. What do Exxon’s own documents, made public this year, show about its media campaigns? a. Exxon lied about the damage to people’s health caused by fossil fuels. b. Exxon buried its own scientists’ research demonstrating that fossil fuel extraction is the main cause of climate change. c. Since 2016 Exxon has spent over $30 million on getting elected officials and the public to think climate change isn’t happening. d. Both a and b e. Answers a, b, and c
5. What did a 2018 US House of Representatives investigation on climate change disinformation discover? a. Most lies about climate change come from North Korea. b. Russia causes many Americans to believe, wrongly, that climate change is a “liberal hoax.” c. China causes many Americans to believe, wrongly, that individuals, not corporations, are to blame for most global warming.
6. Which of these events is/are made worse by the warming climate? a. hurricanes and wildfires b. flooding c. droughts and crop failures d. All of the above e. None of the above
7. The American Lung Association’s scientists found that the pollutants that increase global warming also cause which of these conditions? a. more premature births b. childhood asthma c. under-developed lungs in children d. All of the above e. Both b and c
8. Which of these are characteristics of a “peer-reviewed” scientific journal? a. Three or more experts in the same field read each article submitted for publication. b. the author’s/authors’ identities are unknown to the readers c. The scientific research can be replicated (duplicated) by other scientists who do not work for or with the original researchers. d. all of the above e. None of the above
9. At least what percent of climate scientists conclude that global warming has been happening and that human activity is the main cause? a. 60 percent b. 80 percent c. 97 percent d. 75 percent
10. Which kind of electricity-producing facility costs the most? a. coal-fired b. solar-powered c. nuclear power d. wind-powered
11. How much do US taxpayers give to fossil fuel companies annually in federal government “subsidies”? a. Nothing b. $5 billion c. $10 billion d. $15 billion
12. What are the easiest, most cost-effective ways to reduce atmospheric CO2, which is driving global warming? a. capture and store carbon b. plant more trees and restore lost forests c. transition to solar and wind energy to produce electricity d. All of the above e. Only a and c